The current district of Kaimur was formed in 1991 after the separation from Rohtas district. It has a rich history with evidence of rock paintings in the Lehda forest that are dated back to prehistoric times. Geographically, the district is divided into hilly and plain areas. The district is surrounded by the district of Buxar (Bihar) and Ghazipur (UP) on the North, the district of Garwa (Jharkhand) on the South, Chandauli and Mirjapur (UP) on the West, and Rohtas (Bihar) on the East. Crops such as rice, wheat and maize are the main crops. It is considered to be one of the most backward districts of the region and receives funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF).

According to the 2011, census, the district of Kaimur has a population of 1,600,000 and had a density of 488 inhabitants per square kilometre. It has a relatively high sex ratio of 919 women for 1000 men and a literacy rate of 71%.